Khulafa-e-Rashideen - Khulafa e Rashideen History
Among the Rightly Guided Caliphs, the Caliphs are derived from the Caliph, ie, the one who comes after them. Since the Companions were behind the Holy Prophet, they are called Caliphs. And that is why the righteous speak. This is the plural of Rashid and Rashid means guidance and on the straight path, and the Companions were on the straight path because the companionship of the Holy Prophet (saw) had an effect, so they were indeed righteous.And the number of Righteous Caliphs is 4 and it is also famous.
The Caliphate of these four pioneers was a matter of free decision by the Companions, with their consistent assention and willing assent. Its procurement was additionally because of the predominant value of each of them, in his own age and time, over and above the rest of the Companions. It was not taken by the sword, by compulsion, coercion and forcible seizure from someone more worthy of the position.
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A)
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A) was the First Caliph. His name was Abdullah and titles include “Siddique” (the truthful) and “Ateeque” (free from hell-fire). He was born in the Holy City of Mecca about two years after the birth of the Prophet (S.A.W). He was a very honest, respected and wealthy man, who was blessed to be the first man to embrace Islam.
Hazrat’s love for the Prophet (S.A.W) was so immense that he never left Holy Prophet’s (S.A.W) side and even migrated with the Prophet (S.A.W) to Madina Sharif, leaving his entire family in Mecca Sharif. All his wealth and possessions were sacrificed in the name of Islam. Many slaves were freed by him, Hazrat Bilal (R.A) being one of them.
As well as being a very near and dear friend of the Prophet (S.A.W), he also later became His (S.A.W)‘s father in law too. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A) passed away at the age of 63 and is buried next to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Madina Shareef. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) once said “It is incumbent upon my Ummah to love Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A) and be thankful to him”.
Hazrat Umar Farooque (R.A)
Hazrat Farooque Azam (R.A) was the Second Caliph. His name was Umar Abu Hafs and his titles include “Farooque” (the one who distinguishes between right and wrong) and “Azam” (the great one).
He was born in the Holy City of Mecca about 12 years after the birth of the Prophet (S.A.W). He was a strong, brave, intelligent man who was feared throughout Mecca. He was the 40th person to embrace Islam. His conversion proved to be of immense value to the promotion and glory of Islam.He participated in all the battles of Islam with the Prophet (S.A.W), and spend all his wealth in the cause of Islam.
He was also the one who took the Prophet (S.A.W) and a small group of Muslims into the Holy Kaaba to offer Namaz for the first time in history. Hazrat Umar Farooque (R.A) later became the Father-in-law of the Prophet (S.A.W). At the age of 63, whilst reading Fajr Namaz he was martyred (in Sajda) by a Jew, and is buried next to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) and Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A).
Hazrat Usman Ghani (R.A)
Hazrat Usman Ghani (R.A) was the Third Caliph. His name was Usman bin Affaan and his titles include “Al Ghani” (The Generous) and “Zun Noorain” (Possessor of Two Lights). He was born in the Holy City of Mecca about 6 years before the birth of Prophet (S.A.W). He was from an intelligent, respected, and very wealth family.
On the invitation of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A), He (R.A) embraced Islam. Hazrat Usman (R.A) was a generous and humble person. If any person spoke to him in a harsh tone he always replied gently. He (R.A) donated a huge amount of property in the name of Islam, thus gaining the title of “Ghani” by the Prophet (S.A.W). Although being extremely rich, he lived a simple life.
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) gave two of His Daughters in Nikkah to Hazrat Usman Ghani (R.A), giving him the title of “Zun Noorain”.
At the age of 84, whilst reading the Quran Hazrat Usman Ghani (R.A) was martyred. He is buried in the blessed graveyard of Madina Shareef, called “Janath al Baqi”.
Hazrat Ali Murtaza (R.A)
Hazrat Ali Murtaza (R.A) was the Fourth Caliph. His name was Ali Abul Hasan and his titles include “Haidar” (Lion) and “Baabul I’lm” (Gate of Knowledge). He was born in the Holy City of Mecca about 30 years after the Prophet (S.A.W). His blessed birth took place inside the Holy Kaaba.
He was the cousin brother of the Prophet (S.A.W), and was the first child to embrace Islam at the age of 10. Hazrat Ali (R.A)’s character is a perfect role model for Muslims today. Some of his qualities include Honesty, Piety, Justice and Love of Truth. Hazrat Ali (R.A) also possessed extraordinary knowledge and wisdom.
Although Hazrat Ali (R.A) was poor, he had a very generous heart. Nobody returned empty handed from his door. Hazrat Ali (R.A) took part in many battles and fought very bravely in all the battles he took part in, thus being blessed with the title of “Asaadullah” (Lion of Allah). Hazrat Ali (R.A) became the Son in Law of the Prophet (S.A.W) by marrying His (S.A.W)’s youngest daughter Sayyidah Bibi Fatima (R.A). At the age of 63, Hazrat Ali (R.A) was martyred whilst going to the Masjid. He (R.A) is buried in the city of Najaf (Iraq).